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C1 Advanced (CAE)
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Test 1 / 30

The origin of language

The truth is nobody really knows how language first began. Did we all start talking at around the same time because of the manner in which our brains had begun to develop? Although there is a lack of clear evidence, people have come up with various theories about the origins of language. One recent theory is that human beings have evolved in such a way that we are programmed for language from the moment of birth. In other words, language came about as a result of an evolutionary change in our brains at some stage.

Language  could|may|might well be programmed into the brain but, despite this, people still need stimulus from others around them. From studies, we know that if|when|whenever children are isolated from human contact and have not learnt to construct sentences before they are ten, it is doubtful they will ever do so. This research shows, if  nothing|little else, that language is a social activity, not something invented  in isolation.

Test 2 / 30

The role of antibiotics in our life

Although there are many strains of antibiotic bacteria now present in hospital wards, antibiotics have effectively served their original purpose over the course of the past eighty years. They have been able to treat the infections of countless individuals and saved millions of lives.

Antibiotics have changed the way in which many common diseases are viewed. being infected with bacterial pneumonia, for instance, is no longer considered fatal. Rather, it is viewed as a mundane infection which can be cured with a simple course of antibiotics. The number of antibiotics available for use has also affected their impact on|upon society. Even if one antibiotic is ineffective at treating a disease, there are, for most common infections, a host of other drugs that can be used to effectively cure the disease.

The development of antibiotics over the past eighty years has changed the relationship between humans and disease. Antibiotics have given humans the power to fight back effectively against microorganisms in a way that would have been considered impossible just a century ago.

Test 3 / 30

Football in the United Kingdom

Both the varieties of football that originally hailed from Britain, the Rugby and Association games, have probably never been as popular as they are now. The association game, or soccer as it has become generally known, is now almost globally popular and judging by the last few World Cups, before long a team from Asia, Africa or North America will go on to win the trophy. Rugby’s progress has been less dramatic but the game is becoming increasingly international and is surely destined to continue to expand.

Of course, periodically it is likely that both varieties of football will be afflicted by|with problems stemming from a downturn in the world economy and difficulties generated by financial mismanagement. Collectively, however, their future appears bright. Peculiarly enough, despite this very little is known about the origins of modern football and many questions relating to its growth and development remain unanswered. Football is a very old game, especially in Britain.

Test 4 / 30

Language Variety

The fact that English has been spoken in England for 1,500 years but in Australia for only 200, explains why we have a great wealth of regional dialects in England that is more or less totally lacking in Australia. It is often possible to tell where an English person comes from to within about 15 miles or less. In Australia, where there has not been enough time for changes to bring about much|strong|such regional variation, it is almost impossible to tell where someone comes from at all, although very small differences are now beginning to appear. It is unlikely, however that there will ever be as much dialectal variation in Australia as there is in England. This is because modern transport and communication conditions are very different from what they were 1,500 or even 100 years ago.

Even though English is now spoken in many different parts of the world many thousands of miles apart, it is very unlikely that English will ever break up into a number of different non-intelligible languages in the same way that Indo-European and Germanic did German and Norwegian became different languages because the ancestors of the speakers of these two languages moved apart geographically, and were no longer in touch and communicating with one another. In the modern world, barring unforeseen catastrophes, this will not happen, at least in the near future. As long as Americans and British people, for instance, are in touch with one another and want to communicate with one another, it is most unlikely that their dialects will drift so far apart as to become different languages.