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Test 1 / 30

You’ll hear a student called Josh Brady talking about visiting South Africa as part of his university course in botany.


TRIP TO SOUTH AFRICA

As well as his research project, Josh planned to write a for a website while he was in Africa.

REPORT

Josh’s group planned to check out a particular region after athat had occurred there.

FIRE

Josh was surprised to see being grown in the first area they visited.

RED TEATEA

Josh describes the vehicle they travelled in as a when they went in search of specimens.

SAFARI TRUCK

Josh uses the wordto give us an idea of the shape of the leaves he found.

NEEDLENEEDLES

Josh was particularly impressed by one type of flower which wasin colour.

ORANGEDEEP ORANGE

Josh uses the wordto convey his feelings about an area of vegetation he studied.

PARADISE

Josh really appreciated the view he got from theof his accommodation.

ROOF

M: Hi everyone. My name’s Josh Brady, and recently I was lucky enough to go on a botany trip to South Africa with my tutor and other students from my university, to gather data for the research project we’d been involved in all year. I didn’t post my diary or blog on the university website, because I’d promised to submit a report on my return, which would appear there, and I was working on that from Day One.

We were going to explore a beautiful region of coastal countryside that had previously been affected, not by drought as is common on some parts of the African continent I’ve studied, but by fire. We wanted to see how the flora and other life forms there had recovered – in fact, some plants growing there are dependent on this kind of event to trigger their germination. When we first saw the landscape however, we felt rather confused. Much of the area seemed to be cultivated fields, principally of red tea rather than the colourful flowers we’d been led to expect. Sensing our confusion, our tutor reassured us that we’d soon be off to a wilder area where we’d see a more striking range of specimens. We’d imagined this would involve being taken around in a kind of minibus, or even a van and trailer, but in fact what we boarded was what I can only describe as a safari truck and we headed out into the natural vegetation.

When we arrived and started walking through the vegetation, I found the shape of the leaves rather a surprise – coastal plants can often be tough, with leaves coming to a point like sharp knives, but these resembled needles more than anything else. That meant I was inadequately dressed for walking through them, in thin trousers. I was also totally unprepared for the amazing scent that the plants gave off. By the end of that trip, Id lost count of how many species we’d come across – small delicate pink specimens, bright yellow heathers, one with deep orange blooms, the mental image of which will stay with me forever, and bright crimson wild specimens.

The local farmers are totally committed to protecting the flowers and plants that have colonised the area. Conservationists call it shrubland, in other words a vast area of vegetation that now has arich array of plant species, but that sounds a bit negative for a place that to me seemed like a paradise.

One drawback was that, although the bedrooms in our hostel each had a balcony, the view was of the back yard, with a small garden beyond – which was hardly impressive. But by way of compensation the roof offered a spectacular vantage point over the surrounding scenery. We spent every evening watching the sun go down from there – a magical end to each fantastic day. Anyway, the trip was the most amazing I’ve ever done … [fade]

Test 2 / 30

You will hear part of a radio discussion about the intelligence of great apes.


Chimpanzees

At first, Paula the chimpanzee looked as if she was going to the mirror.

attack

Paula’s use of the mirror to examine her was proof that she understood what it was.

eyeeyes

Ray describes the apes he works with as both and intelligent.

sensitivehighly sensitive

Ray explains how one chimpanzee used both food and to win friends.

beddingbedding material

Ray says that from a human perspective, it’s possible to put a interpretation on Tammy’s behaviour.

political

Ray gives the example of the dropped to show that gorillas possess bargaining skills.

sunglassespair of sunglasses

Annabel describes the apes which take part in experiments as for their species.

ambassadors

Ray questions the validity of experiments which involve giving to apes.

drugs
Test 3 / 30

You will hear a woman called Kate Assadi talking to a group of people interested in taking up skydiving.


Skydiving – exciting hobby

Kate says that in the USA people from a variety of enjoy skydiving.

age groups

Kate first tried skydiving when she was a and it cost relatively little.

studentuniversity student

Kate says skydiving can help overcome a fear of and increase confidence.

heights

More people are buying skydiving equipment from these days.

websites

Kate recently bought a at a bargain price.

helmet

To become an instructor, a skydiver must have done at least previous jumps.

2,0002000

You can find the Parachute Association by contacting the nearest

airport

Kate advises people to spend a period of learning to skydive.

several months

Keith Assadi: Hello! I’m Kate Assadi, and I’m here to talk about my hobby, which is skydiving. So why do people want to jump out of a plane? In the UK, this is still seen as something done by crazy young people! But in the USA, skydiving is a hobby that has been taken up by people from all age groups, by anyone looking for excitement, from twenty-year-olds to people enjoying an active retirement.

I wanted to do skydiving as a teenager, but my parents weren’t very keen on the idea, and wouldn’t give their permission. So, my first jump was as a university student – when I was able to get a discount. Immediately, I was hooked! I couldn’t afford to do it regularly though, until I started working as a lawyer.

Why do I do it? Well, skydiving makes you feel great – you forget all your problems. There aren’t really any health benefits, although I know several business executives with stressful jobs who do skydiving to help them relax. Of course, some people start skydiving to help them get over a fear of heights. If they can face up to their fear – and jump out of a plane at a height of three thousand metres, it helps them to build up the confidence to tackle other things.

So, how do you start? The equipment for skydiving is specialised, and not easy to get in local sports shops. Nowadays, most people buy skydiving kit from websites – there’s more choice and you can see photographs. Though when you’re buying second-hand on the internet, you should ask to see the equipment first. I got my skydiving camera that way and last week I got a helmet with a fifty percent discount. You need a good helmet by the way – it’s the most important part of your equipment.

For your first skydive, you jump from a height of over three thousand metres – strapped to an instructor who’s required to have done at least two thousand jumps before. You dive down in free fall, for thirty seconds… And when the parachute opens, you float down sedately – landing very gently! After that, most people can’t wait to have another go!

Still nervous? – Don’t worry! All trainee skydivers must wear an appliance known as the ‘automatic parachute’ – if s compulsory – so even if you black out, your parachute will still open on its own. These rules are for safety reasons. So… what’s stopping you?

If you’re interested, you need to get in touch with the Parachute Association, and you’ll find the contact details through your local airport. They’ll give advice on how to get started. You can learn to skydive over a weekend, but I suggest the best way is to do it over several months – that allows you to build up your confidence gradually. Skydiving’s great. It’ll give you a whole new outlook on life!

 

Test 4 / 30

You will hear a radio programme about taking family photographs.


Domestic Photography

These days, having one’s photograph taken is less .

unpelasantuncomfortableformalof an ordeal

One subject Gerald never photographs is .

his own childrenhis childrenhis own familyhis family

Photographic companies want people to think that taking photos is .

easysimple

Ruth has put twenty pictures on one page because she didn’t like .

the backgroundthe backgrounds

When people see someone taking pictures of them they tend to .

play up to itplay up to the camerareactpose

Gerald says that family albums today do not show .

angerbad temper

According to Gerald, men are more interested in recording family history when it involves .

video technology

Women make history by .

collecting picturescollecting photosmaking collectionsputting collections together